Indigenous people have lived in coastal Southern California for over 10,000 years, and several successive cultures have inhabited the present-day area of Long Beach.By the 16th-century arrival of Spanish explorers, the dominant group were the Tongva people.
Along with other Tongva villages, they were forced to relocate in the mid-19th century due to missionization, political change, and a drastic drop in population from exposure to European diseases.
In 1784 the Spanish Empire's King Carlos III granted Rancho Los Nietos to Spanish soldier Manuel Nieto.
The Rancho Los Cerritos and Rancho Los Alamitos were divided from this territory.
The boundary between the two ranchos ran through the center of Signal Hill on a southwest to northeast diagonal.
Temple created a thriving cattle ranch and prospered, becoming the wealthiest man in Los Angeles County.
Both Temple and his ranch house played important local roles in the Mexican–American War.
Pacific Bible Seminary (now known as Hope International University) was forced to move classes out of First Christian Church of Long Beach and into a small local home due to damage.
The Ford Motor Company built a factory called Long Beach Assembly at the then address in 1929 as "700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach" where the factory began building the Ford Model A.
On an island in the San Pedro Bay, Mormon pioneers made an abortive attempt to establish a colony (as part of Brigham Young's plan to establish a continuous chain of settlements from the Pacific to Salt Lake).
In 1866 Temple sold Rancho Los Cerritos for ,000 to the Northern California sheep-raising firm of Flint, Bixby & Co, which consisted of brothers Thomas and Benjamin Flint and their cousin Lewellyn Bixby.
They had at least three major settlements within the present-day city.